Investigation into the Intake of Edible Mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus (Aqueous Extract Oyster Mushroo
1Edible Fungi Cultivation Laboratory, National Institute for Amazonian Research, Manaus, Brazil.
2Laboratory of Biological Evaluation of Foods, Department of Food and Nutrition, Faculty of Nutrition, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brazil.
3State Department of Health of Mato Grosso, Blood Center-MT, Cuiabá, Brazil.
4Department of Basic Sciences in Health, Faculty of Medicine, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brazil.
5School of Medical Sciences of the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo (PUC-SP), Sorocaba, Brazil.
Pleurotus ostreatus, popularly known as oyster mushroom, is a type of edible mush-room widely cultivated worldwide in different lignocellulosic residues  . Provide important nutrients (selenium, potassium, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin D, protein and fiber) and bioactive compounds (lectins, proteases, fibrinolytic enzymes, protease inhibitors, and phenolic compounds)  -  . Studies report that their bioactive compounds are responsible by effects anti-inflammatory  , antinociceptive  , antioxidant     , antitumour    , enhancer of iron bioavailability  , gastroprotective  , hepatoprotective    , hypocholesterolemic     , hipoglycemic    -  , immunomodulador  and nephroprotective   (Figure 1).
Almost 20 years ago, a study in Bratislava, Slovak Republic, investigated the ap-plication of a diet with 4% of P. ostreatus in diabetic rats, and showed a significantly lower basal and postprandial glycaemia in relation to the control group  . After this study, several other works were published, investigating the dose, the form of administration, the rodent strain, the drug for inducing
Figure 1. Effects of bioactive compounds from P. ostreatus.
diabetes (diabetic model), the period of the experiment and laboratory tests; everything to elucidate if the reduction of glucose happens after the animal receives the oyster mushroom         . The hypoglycaemic effect of P. ostreatus has been attributed to increased insulin secretion and the action of this hormone in peripheral tissues  , possibly mediated by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and c-AMP-response element binding protein (CREB)  . Although the acute and chronic oral hypoglycaemic and hyperinsulinaemic potential of P. ostreatus has been established, the cellular mechanism and its effects on pancreatic islet structure have been little explored  .
To maintain glucose homeostasis, the pancreatic islets use a variety of adaptive mechanisms, including increased cell mass and number and increased insulin secretion capacity. When the secretion cannot meet the increased demand for insulin due to peripheral resistance to this hormone, hyperglycaemia may occur  . Studies that clarify these aspects may contribute to the expansion of knowledge about the pharmacological activity and the guidelines for the use of this mushroom species as a nutraceutical agent. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the Aqueous Extract Oyster Mushroom (AEOM) on biochemical markers of nutritional status, and liver and kidney function, as well as on the structural adaptations of pancreatic islets of female rats.
2. Material and Methods
2.1. Experimental Animals
Twelve (12) healthy adult female Wistar rats weighing 150 to 180 g were used for this study. They were obtained from the Central Animal Facility of the Federal University of Mato Grosso, and were maintained under standard housing conditions in the animal section of Laboratory of Biological Evaluation of Food of the Department of Food and Nutrition, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The animals were adapted for two weeks preceding initiation of experimental regimen, received fed commercial (Labine chow) and clean tap water acessive ad libitum, exposed to clean tap water throughout the period of the study. The room temperature was maintained at approximately 25˚C, relative humidity at 55%, with a light cycle of 12 hours light and 12 hours dark. All animal experimental protocols were permitted by the Ethics Committee on Animal Research of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (Protocol No. 23108.039877/2021-21), and were carried out by its guidelines for animal use.
2.2. Experimental Design
The animals were allotted into two groups of six (6) rats and kept in groups of three (3) animals per standard plastic rat cage. The groups were named Control and AEOM, consisting of female rats that received 0.9% saline solution and AEOM (100 mg/kg/day), respectively, that were administered by oral gavage at 3 mL/kg body weight for 15 days.
2.3. Sample Collection
Twenty four (24) h after the last oral dose the AEOM, the animals were narcotized in a CO2 and blood were obtained through heart punction into ordinary sample bottles. The blood samples were made to stand for 20 min for coagulation to occur, and afterwards centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 min and the supernatant (serum) collected and kept at 4˚C prior to biochemical assay. The pancreas was quickly excised, weighed, and immediately fixed in 4% neutral buffered formalin for histopathological examination.
The oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus) was obtained from the Laboratory for Cultivation of Edible Fungi of the National Institute for Research in the Amazon (INPA), Culture Collection of Agrosilvicultural Microorganisms (strain code 1467).
2.4.2. Dose Selection
The solution AEOM was prepared by reconstituting the dried and lyophilized mushroom (fruiting body of P. ostreatus) in 0.9% saline solution (100 mg/mL). Daily doses of 100 mg/mL of AEOM was chosen based in Grotto et al.  study, in which the mushroom did not promote hepatic damage in rats.
2.5. Biochemical Analysis
Commercial kits (Wiener Lab. Group, Brazil®) were used for the determination of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatinine, urea, uric acid, total proteins (TP), albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU) and lipid profile [total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and HDL-c]. The LDL value was calculated according to the Friedewald equation: LDL-c = total cholesterol − (HDL + VLDL); VLDL-c = triglycerides/5. Analyzes were carried out in the State Department of Health of Mato Grosso, Blood Center, Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. All chemicals/reagents used in this investigation were of purest analytical grade.
2.6. Changes in Body Weight
Rats in all groups were weighed on the first day and at the completion of the treatment protocols. The percentage change in body weight was calculated using:
2.7. Relative Pancreas Weight
Pancreas weight was presented in absolute and relative values. Relative pancreas weight was calculated using the expression below:
2.8. Histopathological Scrutiny of the Pancreas
Four rats from each group were used for the histological studies. The pancreatic tissue was fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde solution for 24 hours at 4˚C, dehydrated in increasing concentrations of ethanol, clarified in xylene and embedded in paraffin using a histological processor (MTP 100, Slee, Mainz, Germany). The tissue was serially sectioned at 3 µm thickness using a microtome (RM2125, Leica Biosystems Nussloch, Germany) and then mounted on slides with an adhesive surface. Ten sequential sec-tions of the pancreas were deparaffinized in an oven at 60˚C for 2 h, followed by im-mersion in xylene and decreasing concentrations of ethanol. These slides were rehy-drated and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for determination of the pancreatic regions under a light microscope at 40× magnification (Axio Scope A1, Zeiss, Ober-kochen, Germany).
2.9. Statistical Analysis
The results were presented as mean ± standard deviation (S.D.) and analyzed using an unpaired Student’s t-test. The significance level was set at p < 0.05. For the analysis of the results, the program “Statistic for Windows”, (version 4.3, StatSoft, Inc., Tulsa, OK, USA).
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. The Effects of Administration of the AEOM on the Body and Pancreas Weights
The body and pancreas weights of the rats are presented in Table 1. Initial and final body weights and absolute and relative weights of pancreas did not differ between the groups.
3.2. The Effects of AEOM on Lipid Profile
The oral administration of AEOM for 15 days as shown in Table 2 caused a signifycant decrease (p < 0.05) in the levels of total cholesterol and HDL-c. AEOM did not alter TG and LDL-c levels.
Table 1. The effects of administration of the AEOM on the body and pancreas weights.
Values expressed as mean ± SD (n = 6 per group).
Table 2. The effects of AEOM on lipid profile.
Values expressed as mean ± SD (n = 6 per group). *Indicates difference statistical (t Student test, p < 0.05).
3.3. The Effects of AEOM on the Concentrations of AST, ALT, ALP and LDH Activities Following Oral Administration of AEOM
The oral administration of AEOM for 15 days as presented in Table 3 caused a non-significant change (p ≥ 0.05) in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in female rats.
3.4. The Effects of AEOM on the Concentrations of Creatinine, Urea and Uric Acid Concentrations
The oral administration of AEOM for 15 days as presented in Table 4 caused a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the level of uric acid. However not caused a significant change (p ≥ 0.05) in the levels of creatinine and urea concentrationin the female rats.
3.5. The Effects of AEOM on the Concentrations of Total Proteins (TP) and Albumin (ALB), and Glucose (GLU)
The oral administration of AEOM for 15 days as presented in Table 5 did not cause significant change (p ≥ 0.05) in the levels of TP and GLUC, but reduced the serum albumin concentration in the female rats.
3.6. The Effects of AEOM on the Histopathological of the Pancreas
The histopathological examination of the control group showed physiological organization of the pancreas with no morphological alterations (Figure 2(A)). After 15 days of oral dosing of AEOM (Figure 2(B)) showed increasement in the pancretic islets size (H&E).
AEOM is an extract based on P. ostreatus, an edible mushroom important source of bioactive compounds  . For this reason, edible mushroom extracts have been used as dietary supplements and recommended for the prevention and treatment of various diseases  .
In the present study, we evaluated the use of AEOM by healthy adult rats and found similar body weight gain in both evaluated groups. However, we observed a significant reduction in serum albumin concentrations, a condition that can
Table 3. The effects of AEOM on the concentration of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities.
Values expressed as mean ± SD (n = 6 per group).
Table 4. The effects of AEOM on the concetrartion of creatinine, urea and uric acid.
Values expressed as mean ± SD (n = 6 per group). *Indicates difference statistical (t Student test, p < 0.05).
Table 5. The effects of AEOM on the serum total protein, albumin and glucose concentrartions.
Values expressed as mean ± SD (n = 6 per group). *Indicates difference statistical (t Student test, p < 0.05).
Figure 2. Photomicrographs of the pancreatic islets section of the group control (A) and group treated with AEOM (B) at 15 days. The pancreatic islets were outlined in yellow. H&E ×40. Bar = 10 μm.
result from reduced hepatic synthesis, increased catabolism and vascular permeability, and intestinal and renal loss  . Malnutrition, inflammation, liver disease are some situations that can contribute to the reduction of albumin synthesis  . Considering preserved body weight and unaltered total serum protein concentration, it is reasonable to assume that treatment with AEOM did not contribute to the deterioration of the nutritional status of the animals. Body weight fluctuations serve as a sensitive indicator of the general health status of animals  and normal serum total proteins are indicators of preserved nutritional status  . Additionally, unaltered values of AST, ALT, ALP and LDH are indicative that the AEOM did not cause liver damage     . Renal loss of albumin is also an unlikely hypothesis, in view of the preserved renal function, judging by the similar serum concentrations of urea and creatinine in the evaluated groups. The reduction in serum uric acid seen in rats treated with AEOM and also observed in other studies with rodents treated with P. ostreatus, Agrocybe aegerita and Ganoderma applanatum     has been associated with increased urinary acid excretion uric acid   , which is negatively related to albuminuria  .
In the present study, treatment with AEOM reduced total cholesterol, as in murine models of hypercholesterolemia and diabetes    . The hypocholesterolemic effect of P. ostreatus has been attributed to the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids  and polysaccharides that positively modulate the serum lipid profile  , as well as the stimulating effects of intestinal cholesterol excretion   . Interestingly, in the present study, a reduction in HDL-c was observed, as opposed to reports of the positive modulatory effect of P. ostreatus or some of its components, such as polysaccharide residues, on HDL-c in models of diet-induced hypercholesterolemia   , in mice with alloxana-induced diabetes  and in HIV-infected humans on antiretroviral therapy  . Epidemiological studies show a strong inverse correlation between HDL-c and cardiovascular disease risk   , suggesting that in this study P. ostreatus had a detrimental effect on cardiovascular health. However, the reduction in HDL-c observed here may not be a cause for concern, considering the antioxidant properties of P. ostreatus     .
The histomorphological evaluation of the pancreas showed larger pancreatic islets in the AEOM group compared to the control group. Despite the hypertrophy of the islets, the glycemia of the animals treated with P. ostreatus did not differ from that of the control animals. This result was not surprising, since the size of the islets does not seem to be related to the increase in their functional capacity or with the hormonal content. It has been shown that insulin secretion from small islets is greater compared to large islets, with a correlation with greater insulin content/area, greater density of insulin-secreting granules and greater insulin content/volume. Central β cells of large islets appear to contain less insulin/cell with a lower insulin granule density than peripheral β cells    .
The result of this present investigation showed that AEOM is safe at the dose studied, had a positive effect on lipid profile and produced hypertrophy of the pancreatic islets without altering glycemic homeostasis.
This work was funded by Coordination of Superior Level Staff Improvement, CAPES (Finance code 001). The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Amazonas, FAPEAM (FAPEAM, POSGRAD-FAPEAM 2021 and FAPEAM UNIVERSAL AMAZONAS N. 006/2019. Processo N. 062.00143/2020), in the form of the scholarship awarded to EHPA. The authors are grateful to Celso Roberto Afonso for his excellent technical assistance.
Conflicts of Interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.
||| Sales-Campos, C., Silva, J.F., Nascimento Brito, L.B., et al. (2021) Nutritional and Bioactive Properties of an Amazon Wild Oyster Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus (Agaricomycetes): Contributions to Functional Food and Human Health. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 23, 79-90. |
||| Zhang, Y., Hu, T., Zhou, H., et al. (2016) Antidiabetic Effect of Polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 83, 126-132. |
||| Umor, N.A., Ismail, S., Abdullah, S., et al. (2021) Zero Waste Management of Spent Mushroom Compost. Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management, 23, 1726-1736. |
||| Elhusseiny, S.M., Mahdy, T.S., et al. (2022) Immunomodulatory Activity of Extracts from Five Edible Basidiomycetes Mushrooms in Wistar Albino Rats. Scientific Reports, 12, Article No. 12423. |
||| De Carvalho, C.S.M., De Aguiar, L.V.B., Sales-Campos, C., et al. (2012) Determinação bromatológica de Pleurotus ostreatus cultivado em resíduos de diferentes cultivares de bananeira. Interciencia, 37, 621-626. |
||| Sales-Campos, C., Diego, A.P., Samira, R.L.B., et al. (2013) In Vitro Cultivation of Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes in Lignocellulosic Residues from Amazon. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12, 6526-6531. |
||| Carvalho, C.S.M., Sales-Campos, C., Aguiar, L.V.B., et al. (2014) Composição mineral de substratos à base de resíduos de bananeira durante o cultivo de Pleurotus ostreatus. Arquivos do Instituto Biológico (Sao Paulo), 81, 272-281. |
||| Aguiar, L.V.B., Gouvêa, P.R.S., et al. (2022) Production of Commercial and Amazonian Strains of Pleurotus ostreatus in Plant Waste/Produção de linhagens comerciais e amazônicas de Pleurotus ostreatus em resíduos de plantas. Brazilian Journal of Development, 8, 47299-47321. |
||| Sales-Campos, C., Araujo, L.M., Minhoni, M.T., et al. (2011) Physiochemical Analysis and Centesimal Composition of Pleurotus ostreatus Mushroom Grown in Residues from the Amazon. Ciência e Tecnologia de Alimentos, 31, 456-461. |
||| Jayasuriya, W., Handunnetti, S.M., Wanigatunge, C.A., et al. (2020) Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Pleurotus ostreatus, a Culinary Medicinal Mushroom, in Wistar Rats. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2020, Article ID: 6845383. |
||| Vasudewa, N.S., Abeytunga, D.T.U. and Ratnasooriya, W.D. (2007) Antinociceptive Activity of Plerotus ostreatus, an Edible Mushroom in Rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 45, 533-540. |
||| Anandhi, R., Annadurai, T., Anitha, T.S., et al. (2013) Antihypercholesterolemic and Antioxidative Effects of an Extract of the Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, and Its Major Constituent, Chrysin, in Triton WR-1339-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry, 69, 313-323. |
||| Xia, F., Fan, J., Zhu, M., et al. (2011) Antioxidant Effects of a Water-Soluble Proteoglycan Isolated from the Fruiting Bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus. Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers, 42, 402-407. |
||| Krishnamoorthy, D. and Sankaran, M. (2016) Modulatory Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus on Oxidant/Antioxidant Status in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene Induced Mammary Carcinoma in Experimental Rats—A Dose-Response Study. Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, 12, 386-394. |
||| Jayakumar, T., Ramesh, E. and Geraldine, P. (2006) Antioxidant Activity of the Oyster Mushroom, Pleurotus ostreatus, on CCl4-Induced Liver Injury in Rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 44, 1989-1996. |
||| Sarangi, I., Ghosh, D., Bhutia, S.K., et al. (2006) Anti-Tumor and Immunomodulating Effects of Pleurotus ostreatus Mycelia-Derived Proteoglycans. International Immunopharmacology, 6, 1287-1297. |
|||Deepalakshmi, K. and Mirunalini, S. (2016) Efficacy of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. Ex Fr.) P.kumm. on 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene Induced Mammary Carcinogenesis in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats. New Horizons in Translational Medicine, 3, 73-82.|
||| Kong, F., Li, F., He, Z., et al. (2014) Anti-Tumor and Macrophage Activation Induced by Alkali-Extracted Polysaccharide from Pleurotus ostreatus. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 69, 561-566. |
||| Reguła, J., Krejpcio, Z. and Staniek, H. (2016) Iron Bioavailability from Cereal Products Enriched with Pleurotus ostreatus Mushrooms in Rats with Induced Anaemia. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine, 23, 310-314. |
||| Yang, Q., Huang, B., Li, H., et al. (2012) Gastroprotective Activities of a Polysaccharide from the Fruiting Bodies of Pleurotus ostreatus in Rats. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 50, 1224-1228. |
||| Abdel-Monem, N.M., El-Saadani, M.A., Daba, A.S., et al. (2020) Exopolysaccharide-Peptide Complex from Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) Protects against Hepatotoxicity in Rats. Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports, 24, Article ID: 100852. |
||| Zhu, B., Li, Y., Hu, T., et al. (2019) The Hepatoprotective Effect of Polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus on Carbon Tetrachloride-Induced Acute Liver Injury Rats. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 131, 1-9. |
||| Dkhil, M.A., Diab, M.S.M., et al. (2020) Hepatoprotective Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus Extracts in Cadmium-Intoxicated Rats. Journal of King Saud University—Science, 32, 3432-3436. |
||| Zhang, Y., Wang, Z., Jin, G., et al. (2017) Regulating Dyslipidemia Effect of Polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus on Fat-Emulsion-Induced Hyperlipidemia Rats. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 101, 107-116. |
||| Nweze, C.C., Ubhenin, A.E., Lay, T.U., et al. (2017) Hypoglycemic, Hepatoprotective and Hypolipidemic Effects of Pleurotus ostreatus in Alloxan-Induced Hyperglycemic Rats. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research, 1, 163-167. |
||| Bobek, P., Ozdín, L. and Galbavy, Š. (1998) Dose- and Time-Dependent Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in Rats. Nutrition, 14, 282-286. |
||| Jayasuriya, W., Suresh, T.S., Abeytunga, D., et al. (2012) Oral Hypoglycemic Activity of Culinary-Medicinal Mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cystidiosus (Higher Basidiomycetes) in Normal and Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Wistar Rats. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 14, 347-355. |
||| Ravi, B., Renitta, R.E., Prabha, M.L., et al. (2013) Evaluation of Antidiabetic Potential of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Mice. Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology, 35, 101-109. |
||| Nweze, C.C., Rasaq, N.O. and Istifanus, B.I. (2020) Ameliorating Effect of Agaricus bisponus and Pleurotus ostreatus Mixed Diet on Alloxan-Induced Hyperglycemic Rats. Scientific African, 7, 1-6. |
||| Mandal, M., Rakibuzzaman, B., Roqueya, L., et al. (2018) Anti-Diabetic Effect of Oyster Mushroom Mediates through Increased AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) and Cyclic Amp-Response Element Binding (CREB) Protein in Type 2 Diabetic Model Rats. Bangladesh Journal of Medicine, 17, 661-668. |
||| Asrafuzzaman, M., Rahman, M.M., Mandal, M., et al. (2018) Oyster Mushroom Functions as an Anti-Hyperglycaemic through Phosphorylation of AMPK and Increased Expression of GLUT4 in Type 2 Diabetic Model Rats. Journal of Taibah University Medical Sciences, 13, 465-471. |
||| Xiong, M., Huang, Y., Liu, Y., et al. (2018) Antidiabetic Activity of Ergosterol from Pleurotus ostreatus in KK-Ay Mice with Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 62, Article ID: 1700444. |
|||Sangia, S.M.A., Bawadekji, A. and Ali, M. (2017) Comparative Effects of Metformin, Pleurotus ostreatus, Nigella sativa, and Zingiber officinale on the Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats. Pharmacognosy Magazine, 13, 179-188.|
|||Onuoha, S.C., Okoroh, P.N., Uwakwe, A.A., et al. (2021) Antihyperglycemic Effect of Ethanol Extract of Fruiting Bodies of Organically Cultivated Pleurotus ostreatus in High Sucrose High Fat Diet Streptozotocin Induced. International Journal of Progressive Sciences and Technologies, 28, 94-104.|
||| Agunloye, O.M. and Oboh, G. (2022) Blood Glucose Lowering and Effect of Oyster (Pleurotus ostreatus)- and Shiitake (Lentinus subnudus)-Supplemented Diet on Key Enzymes Linked Diabetes and Hypertension in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic in Rats. Food Frontiers, 3, 161-171. |
||| Thomas, P.A., Geraldine, P. and Jayakumar, T. (2014) Pleurotus ostreatus, an Edible Mushroom, Enhances Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase, Ascorbate Peroxidase and Reduces Xanthine Dehydrogenase in Major Organs of Aged Rats. Pharmaceutical Biology, 52, 646-654. |
||| Banukie, N., Jayasuriya, W.J.A., Wanigatunge, C.A., et al. (2015) Hypoglycaemic Activity of Culinary Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cystidiosus Mushrooms in Healthy Volunteers and Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Diet Control and the Possible Mechanisms of Action. Phytotherapy Research, 29, 303-309. |
||| Chorvathova, B., Bobek, P., Ginter, E., et al. (1993) Effect of the Oyster Fungus on Glycaemia and Cholesterolaemia in Rats with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes. Physiological Research, 42, 175-179. |
|||Ghaly, I.S., Ahmed, E.S., Booles, H.F., et al. (2011) Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic Action of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) and Its Effect on DNA Damage, Chromosome Aberrations and Sperm Abnormalities in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Global Veterinaria, 7, 532-544.|
||| Dkhil, M.A., Diab, M.S.M., Lokman, M.S., et al. (2020) Nephroprotective Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus Extract against Cadmium Chloride Toxicity in Rats. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 92, 1-10. |
||| Ahmed, O.M., Ebaid, H., El-Nahass, E.S., et al. (2020) Nephroprotective Effect of Pleurotus ostreatus and Agaricus bisporus Extracts and Carvedilol on Ethylene Glycol-Induced Urolithiasis: Roles of Nf-κb, P53, Bcl-2, Bax and Bak. Biomolecules, 10, Article ID: 1317. |
||| Jayasuriya, W., Wanigatunge, C.A., Fernando, G.H., et al. (2015) Hypoglycaemic Activity of Culinary Pleurotus ostreatus and P. cystidiosus Mushrooms in Healthy Volunteers and Type 2 Diabetic Patients on Diet Control and the Possible Mechanisms of Action. Phytotherapy Research, 29, 303-309. |
||| Cerf, M.E. (2013) Beta Cell Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance. Frontiers in Endocrinology (Lausanne), 4, 37. |
||| Grotto, D., Bueno, D.C.R., Ramos, G.K., et al. (2016) Assessment of the Safety of the Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes), in Rats: Biochemical, Hematological, and Antioxidative Parameters. International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 18, 861-870. |
||| Valverde, M.E., Hernández-Pérez, T. and Paredes-López, O. (2015) Edible Mushrooms: Improving Human Health and Promoting Quality Life. International Journal of Microbiology, 2015, Article ID: 376387. |
||| Arques, S. and Ambrosi, P. (2011) Human Serum Albumin in the Clinical Syndrome of Heart Failure. Journal of Cardiac Failure, 17, 451-458. |
||| Arthur, F., Terlabi, B., Larbie, C., et al. (2011) Evaluation of Acute and Subchronic toxicity of Annona muricata (Linn.) Aqueous Extract in Animals. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 1, 115. |
||| Gupta, S.S. and Gupta, P.S. (2020) Serum Albumin and Total Protein Level as Plausible Marker for Diagnosis of Protein Energy Malnutrition in Children under Age 5 Years. International Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics, 7, 1758-1761. |
||| Scheven, L., Joosten, M.M., de Jong, P.E., et al. (2014) The Association of Albuminuria with Tubular Reabsorption of Uric Acid: Results from a General Population Cohort. Journal of the American Heart Association, 3, e000613. |
||| Alam, N., Amin, R., Khan, A., et al. (2009) Comparative Effects of Oyster Mushrooms on Lipid Profile, Liver and Kidney Function in Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Mycobiology, 37, 37-42. |
||| Alam, N., Yoon, K.N., Lee, T.S., et al. (2011) Hypolipidemic Activities of Dietary Pleurotus ostreatus in Hypercholesterolemic Rats. Mycobiology, 39, 45-51. |
||| Zhang, C., Li, S., Zhang, J., et al. (2016) Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Intracellular Polysaccharide from Pleurotus eryngii SI-04. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 91, 568-577. |
||| Hashimoto, M., Shinozuka, K., Tanabe, Y., et al. (1998) Long-Term Supplementation with a High Cholesterol Diet Decreases the Release of ATP from the Caudal Artery in Aged Rats. Life Sciences, 63, 1879-1885. |
||| Dong, Y., Zhang, J., Gao, Z., et al. (2019) Characterization and Anti-Hyperlipidemia Effects of Enzymatic Residue Polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 129, 316-325. |
||| Abrams, D.I., Couey, P., Shade, S.B., et al. (2011) Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Pleurotus ostreatus (Oyster Mushrooms) in HIV-Infected Individuals Taking Antiretroviral Therapy. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 11, 60. |
||| Gordon, D.J., Probstfield, J.L., Garrison, R.J., et al. (1989) High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Cardiovascular Disease. Four Prospective American Studies. Circulation, 79, 8-15. |
||| Jacobs, D.R., Mebane, I.L., Bangdiwala, S.I., et al. (1990) High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol as a Predictor of Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Men and Women: The Follow-Up Study of the Lipid Research Clinics Prevalence Study. The American Journal of Epidemiology, 131, 32-47. |
||| Huang, H.-H., Novikova, L., Janette, W.S., et al. (2011) Low Insulin Content of Large Islet Population Is Present in Situ and in Isolated Islets. Islets, 3, 6-13. |
||| Fujita, Y., Takita, M., Shimoda, M., et al. (2011) Large Human Islets Secrete Less Insulin per Islet Equivalent than Smaller Islets in Vitro. Islets, 3, 1-5. |
||| Arruda, E.H.P., Silva, G.L.V., Rosa-Santos, C.A., et al. (2020) Protein Restriction during Pregnancy Impairs Intra-Islet GLP-1 and the Expansion of β-Cell Mass. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 518, 77-88. |